Leopard (Panthera pardus) : The Dr. Khalaf-von Jaffa Websites

The Leopards of Palestine

The Leopards of Palestine.*

By: Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa.

*Note: This article was published in "Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin". No.41. May 2005.

Many literary sources, chiefly the Bible, note the presence of leopards all over Palestine (except for sandy regions). Ancient Near Eastern sources, including the Gilgamesh epic and Akkadian lists, indicate that leopards lived throughout the region (the Caucasus, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Sinai and Arabia).
Their existence in any region depended then - and still depends today - on the availability of the three basic conditions essential for leopards: suitable cover, to enable successful hunting; varied prey, to provide food; and minimal involvement with man and his economy.
Over the centuries, areas with these conditions gradually shrank. Woods and thickets were cleared and settled by man and his domestic animals; potential leopard prey was hunted down; and the leopards had no choice but to prey on domestic stock.

At the turn of the 20th century, leopards lived in all the wooded and hilly regions of Palestine, including Mount Carmel and the Judean Hills. However, by mid-century their distribution had declined drastically, and their populations were confined to two areas. One was the forested, deeply fissured regions of Galilee (Al-Galeel). The second area comprised the Judean Desert and the Naqab (Negev) highlands, particularly the steep cleft landscapes that lie east of the watershed line.
 The only ecosystem in Palestine that remains fully undisturbed is a stretch of mountains and cliffs over the Dead Sea. All of the fauna and flora components of this ecosystem are still there, except for the recent extinction of the lammergeier. Not only that, the ecosystem is also complete in the original food chain, the energy flow from primary production up to the highest trophic level, with leopards, wolves, and, may be, additional carnivores on top of the food chain. The leopard population there is considered to belong to the subspecies known as the Sinai leopard Panthera pardus jarvisi. But our males weigh up to 40 kg, quite unlike the subspecies type, and our females are 25-26 kg, which agrees closely with the size and standards of the Arabian leopard Panthera pardus  nimr. It is a question if there will be time to study the subspecific position of this population (Ilani 1989/90).
Leopards occurred on a surprisingly large number of occasions in Palestine, even in recent years when the human population has greatly increased. Harrison (1968) mention that it has repeatedly appeared in Galilee, particularly near the Lebanese frontier. Hardy (1947) notes that in 1939 a female was shot near Safad, and the Beth Gordon settlement possesses a skin of one killed about 1938 near Elon, a locality where leopards appeared again in 1942 and 1943. According to Hardy, Aharoni obtained a specimen from Mount Carmel and it has occurred in the Jerusalem area, also on Mount Tabor and in Wadi Araba south of the Dead Sea. Von Lehmann (1965) knew of one killed in Wadi Daraja, on the west coast of the Dead Sea. A specimen from Bethoren, killed in 1910 was in the Schmitz collection (Anon 1946). Tristram (1866) knew of its occurrence in the Dead Sea Region, Mount Carmel, Gilead and Bashan. A specimen in the Tel Aviv University was obtained at Hanita in 1925, as well as another in 1952, one caught near Pekin in 1948, another near Kfar Aramu in 1952 and another near Ashona in 1956. It is remarkable how many of these records originate from quite a small area in the hills of Galilee; the area has evidently been visited by leopards for a long time, since it was recorded that during the earthquake at Safad in 1834 leopards entered the wrecked village from the hills. It has been supposed that they periodically enter northern Palestine from the mountains of south Lebanon and Mount Hermon. If this is the case it is curious that there are no reports of the animal yet available from those regions (Harrison 1968).
One specimen was obtained by P. E. Schmitz from El-Ammur, 20 km from Jerusalem; it was for a female obtained in 1911, and it is in the Zoological Museum of Berlin. This specimen was described as (Panthera pardus tulliana). Blake (1966, 1967) noted one killed near Ain Turabi, north-west of the Dead Sea.
In 1965 a leopard attacked a Beduin shepherd in Upper Galilee; the animal was stabbed by the wounded shepherd, and they were both found lying side by side, alive but unable to move. The shepherd was fortunate indeed to survive this attack. A leopard cub captured in the same region in 1940 (Anon 1946) was taken to Safad, where the half-grown cub was eating 15-20 pounds of meat a day. Subsequently named Tedi, he was moved to Tel Aviv Zoo,where he grew into a fine and powerful adult described by Hardy (1947) as more heavily built than Indian leopards. Attempts to mate Tedi at first failed, indeed his courtship with a promising young female Indian panther proved fatal, for Tedi killed her with his strong paws (Harrison 1968, Khalaf 1983).

Different subspecies:

Three different leopard subspecies live in Palestine.
Palestine's northern leopards, the Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana) are larger and darker in colour than the desert Arabian or Nimr leopard (Panthera pardus nimr), which is smaller, and lighter in both weight and colour. The Arabian leopard is the smallest race of leopard, and one of the most beautiful: dark spots are scattered on almost white fur. The leopards of the north had almost completely disappeared by the 1960s. The occasional reports of sightings are not always reliable. However, in recent years a few leopards (four) were reported in the north of Palestine.
The conditions are not suitable for the survival and development of the northern population. Although there is enough plant cover, and sufficient animals for prey (gazelle, hyrax, jackal, wild boar and porcupine), man and his activities may be a disturbing factor.
The leopards of Palestine's southern regions were totally unknown between the 1930s and 1964. In April of the latter year, however, an adult female leopard was killed by a Beduin in Wadi Tze'elim; the Beduin reported that her two cubs had fled the scene. In early 1967 Beduins again killed a young male leopard at Einot Qaneh (the West Bank of Jordan River).
A third subspecies, the Sinai or Jarvisi Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) lives in the Judean Desert in Palestine. This subspecies was described by Pocock in 1932. The type specimen is in the British Museum collection, and it was obtained in Sinai, and presented by Col. C. S. Jarvis.
In the end of 1984, 25 adults were known to live in an area of 2,000 sq km, which was declared a nature reserve in 1973.
PalestineÂ’s leopards appear to be making a dramatic increase and expanding into formerly unoccupied territories.
Leopards have penetrated much of the southern half of Palestine, from the Ein Gedi region near the Dead Sea, all the way down to the Elat Mountains. They are also seen on the Egyptian Sinai border in the Wadi Paran region.
Many recent sightings have been made in regions not considered preferred habitats for leopards, and we can only surmise that these big cats seen in such diverse regions is a result of effective conservation of ibex and other prey animals (Ilani and Shalmon 1985, Khalaf 1987).
Adolescent leopards, as they mature, have little choice but to leave the territories occupied by adults. Now that all the preferred habitats – ravines and cliff areas occupied by principal prey species such as ibex Capra ibex, hyrax Procavia capensis and porcupines Hystrix indica – have been essentially occupied by leopards, the younger generations are being forced into less favoured regions (Ilani and Shalmon 1985, Khalaf 1987).
In some cases, leopards have moved into areas where theyÂ’re not particularly welcome. One leopard, took to slipping into the grounds of fashionable Dead Sea hotels at night and making quick meals of all the stray cats. After a few such incidents, a Nature Reserves Authority warden was called in and, with a few warning shots, frightened the leopard off. Leopards have also penetrated into Kibbutz Ein Gedi and the Ein Gedi Field Study Center. New electric fencing (non-lethal, but carrying a scary shock) is being erected to discourage the great cats from becoming too familiar with human settlements (Ilani and Shalmon 1985, Khalaf 1987). 
Leopards are known for their ability to adapt to living almost anywhere, from lowland forest to mountains, and so the Sinai Leopard is not unique in its ability to survive in desert conditions. But a long-term study by the Zoologist Giora Ilani has revealed some adaptations to a desert habitat that have never before been recorded. Using radio telemetry, Ilani has been able to map out the individuals' territories. His 750 sq km study area contained eight females and five males, and was occasionally visited by stray males. As with other subspecies of leopard, males and females have their own territories, pairing up only for breeding. The male takes no responsibility for cub-rearing.
Ilani has, however, witnessesÂ’ one aspect of breeding behaviour which has never been seen before - the rather grisly phenomenon of infanticide. A neighbouring male will encroach on a female's territory and kill her cubs sired by another male, as if aware that she will come into heat almost immediately, enabling him to mate with her and sire his own litter. In some cases, this has meant that a female has given birth annually.
Compared with other leopard-inhabited deserts, for example the Kalahari, the Judean Desert is exceptionally barren, providing few prey species. It is estimated that 96% of the Sinai leopards' diet consists of ibex and hyrax, which they are forced to hunt by day (at night, both species retreat to cliffs and ledges where they can hear the approach of a predator). Diurnal behaviour is uncommon in other leopards, which generally hunt small and medium-sized mammals at night and lie up in the day (Khalaf 1987).
The area continuously occupied by the leopard in Palestine stretches over 3,000 km2 in steep and rugged country, and 85-87% of this is a nature reserve, where wildlife enjoys quite a high degree of protection. The area is an extreme desert; with annual rainfall up to 15 mm. Primary production is very low. We know 11 adult leopards individually in this area. The estimated total is up to 15, with not more than 20 animals. There is some very recent news of some leopards sighted, a female with a cub in the upper Galilee. We do not know if they belong to the Anatolian subspecies Panthera pardus tulliana, which used to be in Galilee, or if they are a surplus of offspring from the area that is continuously occupied. They probably did not know that they should stay in the desert, and migrated up into Galilee. For the whole country, the population is not more than 25 leopards (Ilani 1989/90).
The study area covers 1,200 km2, stretching along the Dead Sea, and the lowest point on earth. In the type of country in which the leopard lives, the only possibility to study them is by foot. The main communication system of the leopard is by defecation and urination in a shallow depression. The first leopard collared, some 26 years ago, was a young female.
Zoologist Giora Ilani followed 6-9 adult individuals for 12 years. One female has been followed for 16 years, starting before the study actually began. A lot of material has been collected. The average female home range is 84 km2 and for males it is 137 km2. The main food items of the leopards are ibex and hyrax, which make up 90% of the diet. In third place comes the porcupine, which makes up 5%. It is hard to say which is hunted most because the area is very rugged country and it is impossible to record all cases of hunting or kills. You know that the leopard killed something, but you do not know what (Ilani 1989/90).
Hyrax weighs 4 kg for males and 3.5 kg for females. Ibex is much less easy for the leopard to take, but when they get a large ibex, about 40 kg, they stay near it for 5-6 days. Ibex are much better organized than the hyrax in their anti-predator behaviour. A leopard usually takes a female ibex with a neck bite. But the leopards are sometimes one-third the size of a big ibex. In one case, a female leopard of 26 kg managed to take an ibex weighing 72 kg. The only way she could do it was by using a snout bite similar to the way lions take wildebeest. Because of the diurnal activity of hyrax and ibex, the leopard is also diurnal, rarely hunting at night except for occasional porcupine and house cats that they take in human settlements. Leopards make many unsuccessful attempts on ibex, because, in open country, they cannot resume their hunting activity. But they move to other areas and resume their hunting activity (Ilani 1989/90).
In 1978, when the leopard study began, the sex ratio was one male to 2.5 females. Since then, four females, which is a big part of the population, were taken out by people. Two of them penetrated human settlements, where one was poisoned, and her daughter was killed accidentally by a car. The last cubs were two males, which matured and joined the adult population. At this time, the zoologists have come to a point at which there are four adult males and only two females, one of which is too old to breed. The second is 11 years old, which is also very close to the end of her fertile age. The biased sex ratio has caused quite a serious problem. In the last five years we have not had one individual joining the adult population in the study area, neither from the adjacent area, nor from breeding, because all the cubs born from the single female that is still fertile were killed by the adult male. The rate of infanticide in this area is tremendous. Now we are facing a very big problem. The only possible solution would be some migration from the adjacent, continuous population of the central Naqab (Negev) (Ilani 1989/90).
In addition to this problem of high infanticide, we have recorded three different cases of incest, a female mating and producing cubs with her own son. We did not notice any external indication of deterioration in the population because of that, but it might be imbedded in the population and may express itself in the future. There is no possibility of additions to the population from neighboring countries because there are possibly no leopards left in the Sinai, nor in the southern part of Egypt. This Sinai population is very important, not only in itself, but to test, in a very small number, the problem of viable populations. Zoologist Giora Ilani has known all of the individuals in this population personally for so many years; he knew who is the father, who is the mother, and all the other parameters of the population. The other problem is that, if the leopard population disappears, it means possibly the collapse of the whole ecosystem, because they help to control the increase of the ibex and hyrax population. If they disappear, it means that other trophic levels will be affected (Ilani 1989/90).
We have a fairly good population of caracal. Fourty five years ago the caracal was a myth in Palestine, but now it is very common. They are possibly not in any danger of extinction. They do not compete with the leopard, because they live in a completely different kind of country. Hyaena is a completely different story. They have an intimate connection with the leopard ecologically, because they feed on the remains of ibex and hyrax killed by leopards. On the other hand, they also take young leopards if the opportunity arises. The mother leopard, in order to supply food, will travel very long distances, leaving the cubs, sometimes when they are only 12 days old, for up to four days. Anything can happen, and it is very possible that their hiding place will be found and they will be killed.
Dorcas gazelle are in the area, but they are not taken by leopard because they occupy completely open country and the leopard has no opportunity to approach them, either at night or in the daytime. A 16 years old female has produced four cubs in six years. She is coming into oestrous twice a month, but she is not producing any more cubs (Ilani 1989/90). This female was very famous for her friendliness. She could be approached to within less than five meters and be photographed. But in one case, after Giora Ilani took the photograph, she jumped and pushed him away. The next morning he found out that he had been just in front of her cubs, which were hidden in the reeds behind him.
There are four subspecies of leopards in the Arabian Peninsula: The Arabian or Nimr leopard Panthera pardus nimr described by Hemprich and Ehrenberg in 1833, the Sinai or Jarvisi leopard Panthera pardus jarvisi described by Pocock in 1932, the Anatolian leopard Panthera pardus tulliana described by Valenciennes in 1856 and the Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor described by Pocock in 1927 (Khalaf 1987).

The main leopard subspecies in Palestine is the Arabian Nimr subspecies (Panthera pardus nimr), once common from the Palestinian Naqab (Negev) and the Sinai Peninsula to the Arabian Peninsula. The Nimr subspecies is now found only in Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman and the United Arab Emirates.
There are fewer than 100 leopards left in the Arabian Peninsula and in the rest of the region, including Palestine, less than 50. 


References and Internet Websites:

Amr, Zuhair S. & Disi, A. (1988). Jordanian Mammals Acquired by the Jordan University Natural History Museum. University of Jordan, Amman. Pps. 32.
Anon (1945). Further notes on Palestine Mammals. Bull. Jerusalem Nat. Club 12:1.
Anon (1946). The Schmitz Collection of Mammals. Bull. Jerusalem Nat. Club 23:1-2.
Anon (1946). The story of Tedi, the Palestine Leopard. Bull. Jerusalem Nat. Club 21:1-2.
Atallah, S. I. (1977). Mammals of the Eastern Mediterranean: their ecology, systematics and zoogeographical relationships. Saeugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 25: 241-320.
Atallah, S. I. (1978). Mammals of the Eastern Mediterranean: their ecology, systematics and zoogeographical relationships. Saeugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 26: 1-50.
Arabian Leopard Action Group Chat Site. http://groups.msn.com/ArabianLeopard
Blake, I. (1966). A Leopard in the wilderness of Judea, Jordan. I.U.C.N. Bull. (Switzerland) 18:7, Jan.-Mar. 1966.
Blake, I. (1967). Dead Sea sites of "the utter wilderness". Ill. London News. 250: No. 6657; 27. March 4th. 1967.
Bodenheimer, F. S. (1935). Animal Life in Palestine: An Introduction to the Problems of animal Ecology and Zoogeography. L. Mayer Pub. Jerusalem.
Bodenheimer, F. S. (1958). The present taxonomic status of the terrestrial mammals of Palestine. Bull. Res. Council Israel Zool.
Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.breedingcentresharjah.gov
Britain / Israel public Affairs Committee (1985). Desert panthers. BBC Wildlife Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 1985, Page 6.
Cunningham, Peter Low (2004). Checklist and status of the terrestrial mammals from the United Arab Emirates. Zoology in the Middle East. 33. 2004: 7-20.
diverse (2004). Reise durch die Natur Jordaniens. Wiss. Red.: W. Waitzbauer, R. Albert, B. Petutschnig & G. Aubrecht. Denisia 14. pps. 508.
Eight Leopards still roam in Israel. www.applesforhealth.com/PetHealth/elsri5.html
Hardy, E. (1947). The Palestine Leopard. J. Soc. Preserv. Fauna Emp. London 55:16-20.
Hardy, E. (1947). The Biblical Coney. Zoo Life. 2:62.
Harrison, David L. (1968). The Mammals of Arabia. Volume 2. Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Hyracoidea. Ernest Benn, London.
Harrison David L. (1981). Mammals of the Arabian Gulf. George Allen & Unwin, London, pps. 92.
Ilani, Giora (1986). The Life and Times of Humibaba the Leopard. Israel – Land and Nature, Volume 12, No. 2, Winter 1986 – 87, pp. 82 – 83.
Ilani, Giora (1989/90). Leopard Panthera pardus in Israel. CAT News. Issue No. 12. http://lynx.uio.no/catfolk/cnissues/cn12-02g.htm
Ilani, Giora and Shalmon, Benny (Presenters) (1985). More Leopards! (In the Wildlife News). Israel – land and Nature, Volume 10, No. 4, Summer 1985, pp. 166 – 167.
Kappeler, Markus (2004). Arabischer Leopard Panthera pardus nimr. Groth AG (erschienen in der WWF Conservation Stamp Collection, Groth AG, Unteraegeri). www.markuskappeler.ch/tex/texs2/arabischerleopard.html
Khalaf, Norman (1983). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (Leopards in Palestine). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 3. April 1983. pp.18 -19. (in Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). Activity Patterns and Sexual Behaviour of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775), at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey Island. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Kingdom. Number 7. Third Year. September 1985. pp. 1-22.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in Saarbruecken Zoo, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fourth Year. Number 10. December 1986. pp. 1-9.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Saarbruecken Zoo, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11. January 1987. pp. 1-10.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Sinai Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 12. February 1987. pp.1-9.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1988). Activity Patterns and Reproductive Behaviour of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775) at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey Island. International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia. Volume 5, pp. 61 - 71. Editor: Leif Blomqvist, Helsinki Zoo, Finland.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. ShqaeÂ’q Al-NoumaÂ’n (Anemon corinaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).
Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. ShqaeÂ’q Al-NoumaÂ’n (Anemon corinaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (in Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali (2001). Leopards in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. www.gazelle.8m.net/whats_new.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. Erste Auflage, juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gazelle_Bulletin.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Leopards of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Arab Emirates. Number 41. Twenty Third Year. May 2005. pp. 1-9. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Leopard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Arabische Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Arab Emirates. Number 42. Twenty Third Year. June 2005. pp. 1-8. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabischer_Leopard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Mammals in Dubai Zoo, Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological bulletin. Number 45, September 2005. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, October 2005. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, November 2005. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Carnivores in the ArabiaÂ’s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 48. December 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Der Asiatische oder Persische Löwe (Panthera leo persica). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 49. January 2006.pp. 1-5.
www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatischer_Loewe.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Felidae Palaestina: The Wild Cats of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 52, April 2006. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Palaestina.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Der Asiatische oder Iranische Gepard (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 53, May 2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatischer_Gepard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Die Rohrkatze (Felis chaus). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 54, June 2006. pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Rohrkatze.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine. / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina1.html (Part 1) & www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina2.html (Part 2) &
www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina3.html (References).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Arabica.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 147-149.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Lion_Palestine.html
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatic_Lion.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) in Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany / Der Chinesische Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 60, December 2006. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Chinese_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the ArabiaÂ’s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). 
http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_12069970_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Recent Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Kuwaiti Desert, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Awal 1428 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; Abstract in English, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_13318445_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Qit Sahrawi (Desert Cat or Sand Cat). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi'e Al-Awal 1428 AH. p. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B7_%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%8A
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Presence of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni) in the State of Qatar. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. p. 20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Qatar_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 66, Juni 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. Seiten 1-13. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Arabica.html
Operation Leopard. Reneved efforts to save the Arabian Leopard. www.arabianwildlife.com/archive/vol1.2/leop.htm
Qumsiyeh, Mazin B. (1996). Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press. Pps. 389.
Singh, Arjan (1982). Prince of Cats. Jonathan Cape, London. pps. 192.
The Arabian Leopard. On the brink of extinction. www.datadubai.com/aleopard.htm
Tristram, H. B. (1884). Fauna and Flora of Palestine. The Survey of Western Palestine. London.
Tschanz, David W. (2003). Saving the Arabian Leopard. www.islamonline.net/English/Science/2003/05/article18.shtml

 

Author & Webmaster: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa.