Leopard (Panthera pardus) : The Dr. Khalaf-von Jaffa Websites

Killing Incident of an Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes , 1856) in Turkey

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Killing Incident of an Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) in Turkey. Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 121. January 2015. pp. 1-20. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/anatolianleopard.htm

The Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) which was killed in the Turkish Diyarbakir Çınar District on 03.11.2013. Hurriyet.          http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/1/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu 

 

An Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) was killed by a shepherd in the Çınar District, the southeastern province of Diyarbakır on Nov. 3, 2013, drawing attention back to a species long thought extinct within Turkey's borders.    

The shepherd, Kasım Kaplan, said the animal had suddenly attacked him from behind while he was outside his village grazing his cattle.       
"We were on a cliff when all of a sudden something jumped on me. I wrestled with the animal that I did not recognize. We fell around 1.5 meters and rolled for 10 meters. I was injured by his claws when he jumped again on me where we fell," Kaplan said (Hurriyet, 03.11.2013).                 
At this point, his cousin Mahmut Kaplan, who was accompanying him, shot the animal with his rifle (Hurriyet, 03.11.2013).         

A biologist from Diyarbakır's Dicle University analyzed the dead animal's body, and said it was the first time he had seen such a leopard since another one was killed in the nearby Siirt province in 2010. That had been the first leopard seen in Anatolia for more than 35 years.   
"It's the first time that a leopard has been seen in Diyarbakır. We don't know how he came here, but it's an itinerant type of animal. We know that they live in Iran," Professor Murat Birecik said (Hurriyet, 03.11.2013).

 

Birecik's colleague, Ahmet Kılıç, said the animal may have offspring and called for their protection. "The reappearance of the Anatolian leopard, which we have thought of as extinct for centuries, is very exciting. Its appearance in Diyarbakır is a miracle. Probably the villagers entered the area where the animal lived, or it may have offspring nearby. It appears to be a young, teenage leopard. Officials should immediately protect the zone," Kılıç said (Hurriyet, 03.11.2013).

 

            
One of the causes of the leopard's extinction is thought to be trophy hunting, which was widespread until the 1970s. Leopards once also populated the Aegean and Mediterranean regions, according to scientists, some of whom maintain that around a dozen still remain in the wild in Turkey's eastern provinces (Hurriyet, 03.11.2013).

 

The Anatolian leopard lies on the ground after being killed by a shepherd on 03.11.2013 in Diyarbakır's Çınar district, Turkey. http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/8/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu 

Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856)

The Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana), also called the Asia Minor leopard, was proposed in the 19th century as a distinct leopard subspecies native to southwestern Turkey, and is currently subsumed to the Caucasian or Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica syn. Panthera pardus saxicolor).

The first camera trap photograph of a leopard in Turkey was obtained in September 2013 in the Trabzon Province. In November 2013, a leopard was killed in the Çınar district of Diyarbakır Province. This specimen is considered the western-most observation of a Persian leopard (Wikipedia). 

The shepherd Kasım Kaplan and the dead body of the Anatolian leopard lying on the ground in Diyarbakır's Çınar district, Turkey.           http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/7/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu 

Distribution and Habitat

The Anatolian leopard was first described on the basis of a skin of a leopard that was shot in the extreme west of Asia Minor, near Izmir in Turkey. Anatolian leopards are thought to have ranged in the Aegean and western parts of Turkey but were not known to be present in the Black Sea region (Wikipedia).

Since surveys were not carried out in western Turkey until the mid-1980s, biologists doubted whether leopards still survived in this part of Anatolia. Sighting reports from the environs of Alanya in the south of the Lycian peninsula suggested that a scattered population existed between FinikeAntalya and Alanya in the early 1990s. Fresh faecal pellets found in Termessos National Park in 1992 were attributed to an Anatolian leopard. A decade later, no signs of the presence of leopards were detected in the Termessos National Park. Interviews conducted with local people and national park personnel did not corroborate the presence of leopards in this area (Wikipedia).

During surveys carried out between 1993 and 2002, zoologists found evidence of leopards in the upper forest and alpine zones of the Pontic Mountains in northern Anatolia. In this area, possible prey species include wild ungulates such as deerchamoiswild goatwild pig but also mountain hare and Caucasian grouse. It is unknown whether a significant number of leopards still exist in Anatolia. Extensive trophy hunting is thought to be the prime factor for the decline and possible extinction of the Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856). One hunter named Mantolu Hasan killed at least fifteen leopards between 1930 and 1950 (Wikipedia).

In eastern Turkey, the range of Anatolian leopards converges with the range of Caucasian leopards. A male leopard camera trapped in the Georgian Vashlovani National Park in 2003 was considered a Caucasian leopard (Wikipedia).

The last leopard in Syria is reputed to have been killed in 1963 about 20 km (12 mi) from the Turkish border in the Al-Ansariyah Mountains. Leopards reported from the Galilee, Occupied Palestine, the Occupied Golan Heights and the Jerusalem (Judean) Desert are considered Arabian leopards (Panthera pardus nimr). 

The habitat of the Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) which was killed in the Turkish Diyarbakir Çınar District on 03.11.2013.       http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/1/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

The habitat of the Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) which was killed in the Turkish Diyarbakir Çınar District on 03.11.2013.       http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/17/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

According to Khalaf-von Jaffa (1987, 2001, 2005) there are three different leopard subspecies living in Palestine.                                                                                       

Palestine’s northern leopards, the Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana) are larger and darker in colour than the desert Arabian or Nimer Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr), which is smaller, and lighter in both weight and colour. The Arabian Leopard is the smallest race of leopard, and one of the most beautiful: dark spots are scattered on almost white fur. The leopards of the north had almost completely disappeared by the 1960s. The occasional reports of sightings are not always reliable. However, in recent years a few leopards (four) were reported in the north of Palestine (Khalaf-von Jaffa 1987, 2001, 2005).

The conditions are not suitable for the survival and development of the northern population. Although there is enough plant cover, and sufficient animals for prey (Gazelle, Hyrax, Jackal, Wild Boar and Porcupine), man and his activities may be a disturbing factor (Khalaf-von Jaffa 1987, 2001, 2005).

The leopards of Palestine’s southern regions were totally unknown between the 1930s and 1964. In April of the latter year, however, an adult female leopard was killed by a Beduin in Wadi Al-Sial (Tze’elim), Jerusalem (Judean) Desert; the Beduin reported that her two cubs had fled the scene. In early 1967 Beduins again killed a young male leopard at Ain Al-Ghuweir (Einot Qaneh), the West Bank of Jordan River (Khalaf-von Jaffa 1987, 2001, 2005).                                                     

A third subspecies, the Sinai or Jarvisi Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) lives in the Jerusalem (Judean) Desert in Palestine. This subspecies was described by Pocock in 1932. The type specimen is in the British Museum collection, and it was obtained in Sinai, and presented by Col. C. S. Jarvis. In the end of 1984, 25 adults were known to live in an area of 2,000 square km, which was declared a nature reserve in 1973 (Khalaf-von Jaffa 1987, 2001, 2005).                                            

Palestine’s leopards appear to be making a dramatic increase and expanding into formerly unoccupied territories. Leopards have penetrated much of the southern half of Palestine, from the Ein Gedi region near the Dead Sea, all the way down to the Elat Mountains. They are also seen on the Egyptian Sinai border in the Wadi Faran (Paran) region (Khalaf-von Jaffa 1987, 2001, 2005).

Many recent sightings have been made in regions not considered preferred habitats for leopards, and we can only surmise that these big cats seen in such diverse regions is a result of effective conservation of ibex and other prey animals (Khalaf-von Jaffa 1987, 2001, 2005).

The habitat of the Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) which was killed in the Turkish Diyarbakir Çınar District on 03.11.2013.       http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/3/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

Sightings and Encounters

In 1974, a leopard was killed in Bağözü village near Beypazarı, Turkey, following an attack on a woman. For three decades, this encounter was considered to have been the last confirmed sighting of an Anatolian leopard (Wikipedia).

In 2010, a leopard was killed and skinned in the Siirt Province, Turkey. In September 2013, an animal captured by camera traps in the Trabzon Province in Turkey's northern region was identified as a leopard by biologists from the Karadeniz Technical University who asserted to have obtained several photos of leopards in the surveyed area. On 3 November 2013, a leopard was killed after it attacked a shepherd in Diyarbakır Province in the country's southern region (Wikipedia).

A Zoologist taking measurements of the dead Anatolian leopard which is lying on the ground after being killed by a shepherd on 03.11.2013 in Diyarbakır's Çınar district, Turkey. http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/10/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

Turkish Zoologists examining the body of the Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) which was killed in the Turkish Diyarbakir Çınar District on 03.11.2013.    http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/16/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

The Kaplani of Samos Island in Greece

There are no recent reports of encounters with the animal in Greece, though at the end of the 18th century an Anatolian leopard from Asia Minor was forced, either by a flooding of the Maeander River or by wildfire, to swim over to the nearby Samos Island, where it became the apex predator and the scourge of domestic animals (Wikipedia).

The Kaplani (Greek: Καπλάνι from TurkishKaplan meaning Tiger) was hunted by farmers and shepherds and was forced to take refuge in a cave. The entrance was documented as being blocked with large stones so that the animal would die out of hunger and thirst. After some time, a villager named Gerasimos Gliarmis opened a hole and climbed down the cave unarmed, in order to find the leopard's corpse. But the animal had managed to survive eating the remains of its old prey and drinking the water which had gathered in the cave's hollow. The leopard tried to fight his way out, but the villager's brother, Nikolaos Gliarmis, also climbed down the cave for help and managed to kill it. Gerasimos Gliarmis was injured by the wildcat in his chest and died a short time later from infection.

The dead leopard was embalmed and is today displayed at the Natural History Museum of the Aegean on Samos Island. The story of the animal and the exhibit inspired distinguished Greek author Alki Zei for her novel “Wildcat under glass” (GreekΤο καπλάνι της βιτρίνας, a.k.a. “The Tiger in the Shop Window”, 1963) (Wikipedia).

The Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) which was killed in the Turkish Diyarbakir Çınar District on 03.11.2013. http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/13/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

References and Internet Websites

Haber Monitör. Were sought for 36 years, Anatolian leopard in Siirt. After 36 years in Siirt Anatolian leopard extinctions of thought emerged. http://www.habermonitor.com/en/haber/detay/were-sought-for-36-years-anatolian-leopard-in/90378/

Hurriyet. Shepherd kills first Anatolian leopard sighted in Turkey for years. 3.11.2013. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/shepherd-kills-first-anatolian-leopard-sighted-in-turkey-for-years.aspx?PageID=238&NID=57317&NewsCatID=378                                       

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Khalaf, Norman (1983). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (Leopards in Palestine). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 3. April 1983. pp.18 -19. (in Arabic).     

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). Activity Patterns and Sexual Behaviour of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775), at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey Island. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Kingdom. Number 7. Third Year. September 1985. pp. 1-22.                                                                

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Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Presence of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni) in the State of Qatar. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, Rabi'e Al-Akher 1428 AH. p. 20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Wild_Predators/conversations/topics/664 & http://archive.is/gKhv6   
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 66, Juni 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. Seiten 1-13. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).        http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Sanuriyat (Felidae). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic).         
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D9%86%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Der Karakal oder Wüstenluchs (Caracal caracal, von Schreber 1776). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 67, Juli 2007, Jamada Al-Akhera 1428 AH. Seiten 1-12. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).       http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Karakal.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Um Rishat (Caracal or Desert Lynx). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D9%85_%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%AA
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007.  
http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. 2007. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).       http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) at Al Ain Zoo, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German).                                                                                                                    

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) at the Arabia's Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German).      
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm      
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 73, January 2008. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Raubkatzen/conversations/topics/86

 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Text) and Nora Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (Drawings) (2008). Qisset Al-Labu'a Sabrina fi Hadiqet Haywanat Ghaza (The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Story in Arabic).          

http://khalaf.homepage24.de/The%20Story%20of%20Sabrina,%20the%20Gaza%20Zoo%20Lioness                                                                                                       

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Text) and Nora Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (Drawings) (2008). Qisset Al-Labu'a Sabrina fi Hadiqet Haywanat Ghaza / The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. First Edition. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-vonJaffa, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Publication in Summer 2008, in Arabic and English). ISBN 978-9948-03-603-6. English article Website:
http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Lioness_Sabrina.html &
Arabic Story Website: http://khalaf.homepage24.de/The%20Story%20of%
20Sabrina,%20the%20Gaza%20Zoo%20Lioness
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Zanzibar Leopard (Panthera pardus adersi, Pocock 1932). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.           http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/zanzibarleopard.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Zanjibar (Zanzibar Leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al- Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. Page 14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic).
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%AC%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Leopard Stamps from Zanzibar and Tanzania. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 75, March 2008. pp. 1-4. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Sri Lanka leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. pp. 1-17. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/srilankaleopard.htm
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. Page 18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).      http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%83%D8%A7                                      Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Persian or Iranian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 77, May 2008. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/persianleopard.htm    
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Royal White Tigers (Panthera tigris, Linnaeus 1758) at Zoo d'Amnéville (Amneville Zoo), Amneville, Lorraine, France. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 78, June 2008. Pp. 1-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.           
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/WildCats_/conversations/topics/907
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Farisi (Persian leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).        
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%B3%D9%8A                                                                                                                Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher. Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2008). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008. / Carnivora Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 2005-2008. First Edition, September 2008, Ramadan 1429 AH. 396 pps. Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. ISBN 978-9948-03-459-9. (In Arabic, English and German). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/carnivoraarabica.htm                                                              

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Carnivora Palaestina: The Carnivores of Palestine / Die Raubtiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 82, October 2008, Shawal 1429 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.        https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Arabica/conversations/messages/31       

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.        http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/                                                                                                     Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.         http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm                                                       

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm                  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine.            http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm                                                                                                                                  

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Der Mosbacher Löwe (Panthera leo fossilis, Reichenau 1906) / The Early Middle Pleistocene European Cave Lion (Panthera leo fossilis, Reichenau 1906). Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 101. January 2013. Pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://lion-panthera-leo.webs.com/mosbacher-loewe                                                                                        

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Der Europäische Leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi, Schütt 1969) / The European Leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi, Schütt 1969). Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 102. February 2013. Pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/europeanleopard.htm & http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/europ__ische_leopard_panthera_pardu     

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine.    http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm                                    

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). The Pink Panther (Panthera pardus roseus Khalaf, 2013): A New Leopard Subspecies from South Africa. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH. pp. 26-42. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.       http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/pinkpanther.htm                                                                    K

halaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Subspecies Panthera pardus roseus Khalaf, 2013. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/adtaxon/id300734/                                                             

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Pink Panther (Panthera pardus roseus Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/98287                                                                        

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Poisoning case of an Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) at Wadi Noaman, North East of Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 118. October 2014. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-makkah.webs.com/arabian-leopard-wadi-noaman                                          

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Killing Incident of an Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) in Turkey. Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 121. January 2015. pp. 1-20. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/anatolianleopard.htm                         

The Last Anatolian Leopard.  http://wild-cat.org/pardus/leopards/index.htm?last-anatolian.htm                                             

Video: Kurdish guy Kills thought-to-be-extinct Anatolian Leopard. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PlwFZ5s2c8                                           

Video: http://webtv.hurriyet.com.tr/2/56493/0/1/cobanlarin-oldurdugu-hayvan-anadulu-leopari-mi.aspx                                                                               

Wikipedia. Anatolian leopard.        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatolian_leopard                                     Wikipedia. Arabian Leopard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian_leopard

Wikipedia. Leopard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian_leopard    

Wikipedia. Persian Leopard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_leopard

The shepherd Kasım Kaplan and the dead Anatolian leopard lying on the ground in Diyarbakır's Çınar district, Turkey.            http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/13/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

The injured shepherd Kasım Kaplan. http://fotogaleri.hurriyet.com.tr/galeridetay/75095/2/11/leopari-oldurmenin-cezasi-belli-oldu

Anatolian leopard (2001).

The Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana, Valenciennes 1856).

By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa (2001).


The Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana) is a subspecies of leopard native to Asia Minor, Turkey. It is unknown whether any of these leopards still exist in the wild.


Distribution/Physical Features:

These animals once prowled the forest and hill regions of Aegean, West Mediterranean, East Mediterranean, and East Anatolia. Adults grow 200-250 centimeters long and may weigh up to 90 kg; their lifespan is approximately 20 years. In Israel, there were Anatolian leopards until the 1980s. There were some unapproved reports about the population of this animal in the Galil, and Ramat-Hagolan.

Diet:

In the wild, the leopard's prey consists of wild ungulates, which include deer, chamois, mountain goats, and occasionally wild boar. The animal would also go after birds and domestic livestock, if need be.


Sightings:

The last official sighting of the Anatolian leopard was in 1974. The animal was killed after an attack on a woman in Bagözü village, 5 km from Beypazari. Although some scientists have suggested the species has become extinct, others have suggested that there are still between 10-15 leopards in the wild. In 2001, the animal was spotted in the locality called "Dandi" near the town of Mut in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey's Mediterranean Region, and around Muskili Brook on the eastern Black Sea. In 2003 remote sensing cameras captured an adult male Anatolian Leopard in the Vashlovani National Park in Georgia. Another sighting was reported in 2004 in Pokut Plateau.

Cause for Decline:

It was thought that extensive trophy hunting was the prime factor in the decline and possible extinction of the Anatolian leopard. One hunter named Mantolu Hasan, singlehandedly killed at least fifteen of these animals, possibly as many as fifty.


Anatolian Leopard is alive:

Anatolian Leopard that was thought to be extinct was photographed in Eastern Black Sea Region's Kackar Mountains.

Marmara Forest Services Regional Assistant Manager Erkan Kayaoz informed that, a photographer named Cemal Gulas, brought them a picture of a paw print for investigation.

Kayaoz said that the 15 cm wide and 10 cm deep paw print that was found around 2000 meters altitude Mesedagi region of Kackar mountains was investigated. He also added:

Based on the paw print and other information we have, we determined that the subject animal is an Anatolian Leopard. Accordingly, together with photographer and researcher Hagop Savul we started our expedition in the 2000 meters altitude region. Even though we spotted a leopard it's agility didn't allow us to take a picture, however the next morning we were successful in photographing a leopard from a distance.

Kayaoz indicated that an Anatolian Leopard sighting in Kackar Region  was not coincidental and that numerous researchers have noted the region on habitat maps.

Kayaoz said that he is honored to positively prove positively that the Anatolian Leopard that was thought to be completely extinct still lives in Kackar Mountains.

The flash presentation of leopard above left are not Anatolian.

In depth studies have previously indicated that the original habitat of Anatolian Leopard, (Aegean Region of Anatolia including Mugla and extending all the way to Taurus Mountains) had a disheartening population of 0. Kayaoz added that the next step of their study is going to be taking an accurate inventory of surviving species. He also added that the successful research was a sponsored expedition, however they would make the photograph available only for scientific researchers and institutions upon request.
The hunter was called Mantolu Hasan who killed more than 15
Anatolian Leopards. Mostly by poison from 50's to 70's.
He was an addict...
Some of the leopards that he killed were over 100 kgs.  The near extincition of the Anatolian Leopard is due almost entirely to trophy hunting.

This cat was in a Turkish Zoo in the 70's according to a Turkish volunteer,
who graciously provided us with both of these black and white photos.

Marmara Forest Services Regional Assistant Manager Erkan Kayaoz informed that, a photographer named Cemal Gulas, brought them a picture of a paw print for investigation.

 

References:

Anatolian Leopard Is Alive. http://www.bigcatrescue.org/catfacts/cats/leopard_anatolian.htm

Anatolian leopard.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatolian_leopard

 

The Anatolian leopard lies on the ground after being killed by a shepherd on 03.11.2013 in Diyarbakır's Çınar district, Turkey.