Leopard (Panthera pardus) : The Dr. Khalaf-von Jaffa Websites

The Persian Leopard

The Persian or Iranian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927).*

By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa.


*Note: This article was published in "Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin." Number 77, May 2008. pp. 1-15.


The leopard (Panthera pardus) has been traditionally recognized as a common species due to its frequent appearance in popular wildlife TV programs. In practice, however, this wild cat can be regarded as common only in savannas and tropical rain forests of Sub-Saharan Africa where it is widely filmed and even somewhere allowed for trophy hunting within the official quotas (Anonymous 2003). In the meantime, eight leopard subspecies are listed in the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as either "endangered" or "critically endangered" and seven of them are living today in Asia (IUCN 2004). Without taking active, targeted, and large-scale conservation measures, they are in imminent danger of extinction from the Earth. The Persian or Iranian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927) is one of the subspecies in danger of disappearance.
 
The Persian leopard is one of the leopard subspecies native to western Asia. It is endangered throughout its range in the Middle East. 

The Persian leopard is said to be the largest of all the subspecies of leopards in the world. It can grow to up to 1.5 to 2.7 feet tall at the shoulder, and weigh as much as 155 lbs. Before 1990, when Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, and Turkmenistan were the Soviet republics, the scientific names of the leopard used in these countries were Panthera pardus tulliana and Panthera pardus ciscaucasica, whereas the name Panthera pardus saxicolor had been traditionally used by the western specialists for the cats in Iran and, partially, Afghanistan. There are currently a few hundred left in the world. 

Range and Population:
The Persian leopard's current range extends over the Middle East and its total number does not exceed 1,300 individuals. Most of the cats are found in Iran (550-850 animals) and especially in its northwestern portion adjoining southern Armenia and Azerbaijan (160-275; Kiabi et al. 2002). The number in Afghanistan is unknown, but should be at least several hundred (Habibi 2004); however, today's rampant leopard fur trade on the Kabul market and over harvest during and after the long-term civil unrest pose the greatest threat to survival of this predator in the country (Mishra and Fitzherbert 2004). In northeastern Iraq contiguous to western Iran and southeastern Turkey and elsewhere in the country, the leopard was considered rare as early as the late 1950s (Hatt 1959), and now this war-torn country is believed to no longer contain this carnivore. The southern edge of Turkmenistan holds 78 to 90 leopards (Lukarevsky 2001). The most recent and highly mysterious case of killing an old male leopard in southern Kazakhstan (Shakula 2004) raises an important question about the cat's status in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan from where the animal could have come, but since the late 1970s virtually nothing is known about the leopard in either of these countries (Lukarevsky 2001). Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province also holds the Persian leopard population, but of unknown size (Zulfiqar 2001). Armenia and Azerbaijan together are unlikely to harbor more than 30 cats, of which a maximum of 10 to 20 may live in southern and southwestern Armenia (Khorozyan 2003) and the others roam over Azerbaijan's Naxcivan Republic and in the Talis Mountains (Askerov 2002). Some transient individuals can penetrate to Georgia; recently, a good-looking young male was captured by photo-traps in Vashlovani Reserve in the extreme southeast of the country (Butkhuzi 2004). The presence of the leopard in European Russia's North Caucasus Mountains is questionable (Semenov 2002), but a sort of evidence was recently reported for the triangle between the republics of Daghestan and Ingushetiya, southeastern Georgia, and northwestern Azerbaijan (Anonymous 2004). It is unknown whether the leopard from northeastern Turkey close to Georgia belongs to the Persian subspecies (Baskaya and Bilgili 2004), but it should be separated from the Caucasus because there are no records from adjoining parts of southwestern Georgia and western Armenia.

Range and Habitat: 
It thrives in Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and northwestern Afghanistan. Habitat varies from mountain steppe to grasslands, or anywhere having a reasonable amount of cover and a supply of prey. Unconfirmed reports of big cats in the far southeast of Turkey might also pertain to these animals.

Persian Leopard in Armenia: 
In Armenia, the Persian leopards live in the juniper sparse forests and, to a lesser extent, in arid and mountain grasslands, sub alpine and alpine meadows. Their haunts are extremely rough and rocky places with plenty of cliffs. This predator uses the same trails during regular movements, so knowing where they are, the researcher can find the evidence of leopard existence such as scats, tracks and scrapes. The leopard in Armenia is threatened by disturbance, poaching, and wild fire, but which of these factors are most stressful for this cat is still unclear. The leopard can also be found in the Shikahogh State Preserve.

In Armenia, the leopard has coexisted with humans since the Holocene (ca. 5,000 years ago) and carvings and paintings of it made by prehistoric people from approximately 3,000 years ago are not uncommon (Mezhlumyan 1985). Most of them depict the predator hunting its staple prey, the bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), or being hunted by men. It was common until the large-scale eradication of all large carnivores began in the early 1900s when Armenia and other regions of the Russian Empire were struck by political turmoil and most of adult population was armed. Before 1972, when at last the leopard was declared an officially protected mammal and entered the Red Data Books of Armenia and the USSR as "endangered," it was officially killed as vermin and for valuable skins, which were sold by hunters to the governmental stocking centers (Gasparyan and Agadjanyan 1974). As a result, in the mid-1970s the cat has disappeared from northern Armenia and its entire range shrank to its present status.

Today, the leopard's coarse-scale range extends over southern and southwestern Armenia from Garni district of Khosrov Reserve down to Armenian-Iranian state border. It is bounded by the Vardenis and Geghama ridges in the north, by the Azat River in the northwest and by plain semi-deserts and croplands of the Ararat Valley in the west. The landscapes used by the leopard are juniper sparse forests, arid and mountain grasslands, and sub alpine and alpine meadows, whereas the semi deserts, nival, and harsh nival zones are ignored as unfavorable with no proper prey and shelter. The alpine belt is expected to be suitable only in snow free time, as the predator's high footing pressure makes it plod and fail to hunt in deep snow (Pikunov and Korkishko 1992). The weather in these habitats is cold and misty in winter, rainy and warm in spring and fall, and very hot and dry in summer. The terrain is very rough, with an array of canyons, cliffy massifs, and stony substrates. The rugged relief does not enable leopards to do long stalking, but provides plenty of opportunities for them to lurk and kill prey by ambush.

Prey sufficiency is the key factor, apart from human impact, underlying the carnivore's existence. The bezoar goat is quite common throughout the leopard range, but especially in Khosrov Reserve, where it makes over 90% of the predator's diet (Khorozyan and Malkhasyan 2002). The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is widespread, but is taken very reluctantly in Khosrov and more frequently elsewhere in southern Armenia (Khorozyan and Malkhasyan 2002). The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) lives in southern Armenia and is absent in Khosrov, and is readily fed upon by the leopard. The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) are taken opportunistically. That the wild prey base is sufficient for the leopard in Armenia is indirectly proved by the fact that the livestock losses to leopard predation are sporadic and negligible compared to those inflicted by the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and brown bear (Ursus arctos). 

The long-term persistence of the small, but definitely resident, population in Armenia implies its connectivity with the much larger population in northwestern Iran. There are several places along the borderline Arax River where this river is narrow and shallow and where the mountain ridges descend from both countries to the riverside, making them ideal linkages with fords.

Persian Leopard in Azerbaijan: 
The Persian leopard lives in the southern regions in Azerbaijan, primarily in the Talysh Mountains, Nagorno-Karabakh and Nakhichevan. It was not clear whether leopards had been extinct in Azerbaijan by the late 1990s until the species was caught on camera in March 2007 in the Hirkan National Preserve. 

Persian Leopard in Georgia: 
There are very few leopards left in the wild in Georgia. At present, they primarily live in dense forests, although several have been spotted in the lowland plains in the southeastern region of Kakheti in 2004. Over the last 60 years, there have been several sightings of the leopard around the Tbilisi area and in the Shida Kartli province to the northwest of the capital. 

Persian Leopard in Persia (Iran): 
The main range of this species in Iran closely overlaps with that of Bezoar Ibex. Hence, it is found throughout Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges, as well as smaller ranges within the Iranian plateau. Leopard population is very sparse, due to loss of habitat, loss of natural prey, and population fragmentation. 

Traditionally, large populations were found in northern Khorasan, Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan, Fars, Ardabil, Kurdistan, Lorestan, West Azarbaijan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, and Esfahan provinces. Leopards do not usually enter the deep desert interior of the country. Apart from Bezoar Ibex, wild sheep, boar, deer (either Maral red deer or roe deer), and domestic animals constitute leopards' diet in Iran.

Subspecies:
There is much debate on how many leopard subspecies exist in the Middle East. Before 1990, when Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, and Turkmenistan were the Soviet republics, the scientific names of the leopard used in these countries were Panthera pardus tulliana (Valenciennes 1856) and Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Satunin 1914), whereas the name Panthera pardus saxicolor (Pocock 1927) had been traditionally used by the western specialists for the cats in Iran and, partially, Afghanistan. Current international regulations consider both P. p. ciscaucasica (Caucasus leopard) and P. p. saxicolor (Persian leopard) as synonyms and use only one, P. p. saxicolor (IUCN 2004) because these races are identical morphologically (Khorozyan 1999) and should be so genetically (Miththapala et al. 1996), and because the leopards occasionally move between Iran and Armenia. The name P. p. tulliana (Anatolian leopard) applies to the leopard in southwestern Turkey. 

Historically, the Caucasus was inhabited by three big cats: Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata), and Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor). Moreover, until 15 A.D. the Armenian princes imported the Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), tamed them, and used in high-rank hunts (Nowell and Jackson 1996). The lion disappeared here in about 10 A.D. (Nowell and Jackson 1996) and the last tiger was shot in 1932 near Prishib village in Talis, Azerbaijan (Gadjiev 2000). The principal reasons of their disappearance were extermination of predators and their prey and habitat destruction. Later, this tiger subspecies had vanished forever and the Asiatic lion is confined now to a single population in west India. The leopard has outlived them all, but can be wiped out if the authorities at all levels do not express more political will and support. 

Food and Hunting: 
A leopard's diet varies depending on where it thrives. The Persian leopard's diet varies from small mammals and birds, to larger animals such as, deer, antelope, Bezoar ibex, and occasionally wild boar. The animal silently stalks its prey, and then strikes out of nowhere, ending with a bite to the throat. 

Biology:
The Persian leopard has a gestation period of 3-4 months. Females reach sexual maturity at about two and a half years of age. The offspring usually consists of 3 cubs. 
 
Threats:
This species is listed as endangered and commercial trade of this species is prohibited by international law. The Persian leopard has been threatened due to persecution, habitat loss, and poaching. It is also one of the animals in western Asia which is suffering from warfare in its mountain range.

Threats in Armenia: 
The leopard in Armenia is threatened by disturbance, poaching, and wild fire, but which of these factors are most stressful for this cat is still unclear. 

Human disturbance is widespread, especially in spring and early summer when local people gather edible plants and mushrooms, in fall when occasional hunts take place in some favorite haunts, and in late fall when villagers cut trees and collect branches as fuel wood for winter. Gathering is a century-old tradition of rural Armenians, which possibly reflects the efforts to compensate the deficiency of plant proteins and vitamins in their diet. The most popular plants gathered are horse fennel (local name "bokhi," Hippomarathrum microcarpum), falcaria ("sibekh," Falcaria vulgaris), and Astrodaucus orientalis ("mandak") (Takhtajyan, 1973) and the mushrooms are field blewit (Lepista personata), Pleurotus eryngii, St. George's mushroom (Calocybegambosum), and field mushroom (Agaricus campestris) (Nanagulyan 1987). The gatherers disperse over the slopes and communicate to one another by shouts, so their behavior poses a serious harassment to animals, particularly to the ungulates fed upon by the leopard. In response, they become more vigilant and shy, but rarely escape to other places. The numbers of gatherers in the period from April to June are significant. For example, between May 5 and 13 of 2004, 50 gatherers were counted in Khosrov Reserve. Most of them arrived on foot (42%), horseback (28%) and on motorcycles (14%), whereas fewer used vehicles and donkeys (8% each). This information implies that the roadblocks, which are easily rounded by hikers and horse-riders, would be an inefficient way to close up the villagers' access to the gathering sites. Potentially, this problem could be solved by raising public awareness, but people's motivation to gathering is very strong. 

Poaching is traditionally believed to be an important factor of risk for the leopard, other large carnivores, and its prey, especially since early 1990s when the newly independent Armenia waged the war with neighboring Azerbaijan over Nagorno Karabakh and which has eventually left numerous firearms in local people's hands. Currently, the narrow isthmus of southern Armenia, which is squeezed from both sides by Azerbaijan, has been officially considered a "borderline territory." According to anecdotal information, one leopard has been killed in Armenia every year or two, mainly as a result of snow tracking. As the leopard is officially protected and the poacher will be fined and jailed, all cases are treated in a "shoot, shovel, and shut up" fashion provoked by human fear.

Wildfire destroys the leopard's favorite habitats and forces it to move away to other places. The main reason of fire is human neglect, which can cause ignition during the extremely dry months of June-September from a single match, piece of glass, campfire ember, or ashes left by livestock keepers or plant gatherers. The habitat's propensity for burning is increased because of xeric vegetation, scarce precipitation, significant tracts of lands covered by coniferous sparse forests (junipers), strong winds blowing alongside the slopes and the lack of technical capacities in local conservation entities to timely quench the fire. Some small plots can be deliberately burned down, as this practice is still strongly believed by villagers to stimulate the growth of fodder for their livestock. Instead, it destroys soil structure and kills soil invertebrates, small mammals, and ground-nesting birds. 

All these threats are expected to closely correlate with human densities, i.e., the higher densities will intensify pressure and thus decrease the probabilities of occurrence of the leopard and its prey. In the meantime, human activities can affect the carnivore populations also in remote areas with low human densities, so human attitudes and practices can be more important than density per se (Cardillo et al. 2004; Woodroffe 2000). However, in most of today's developing countries where human behaviour and resource use have not been properly controlled or managed, the probability of large carnivore extinction is positively related to human density until favorable wildlife management practices are introduced and enforced (Linnell et al. 2001). Livestock breeding present in the leopard range in Armenia at the temporary shepherd camps located far away from the villages has been tolerable by the leopard, but is a serious threat to its long-term survival if not properly managed (Khorozyan 2003). Meantime, the leopard distribution is spatially completely separated from inhabited settlements. 
  

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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.    www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatic_Lion.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp.1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/Ein%20Besuch%20im%20Neunkircher%20Zoo-%20Neunkirchen-%20Saarland-%20Deutschland
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) in Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany / Der Chinesische Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 60, December 2006. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Chinese_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the ArabiaÂ’s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). 
http://khalaf.homepage24.de/Behavioural%20Observations%20on%20the%20Arabian%20Leopard%20in%20the%20Arabia-s%20Wildlife%20Centre-%20Sharjah-%20UAE
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Zum 1. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The First Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 62, Februar 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. Seite 11.  Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Recent Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Kuwaiti Desert, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Awal 1428 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; Abstract in English, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic).  http://khalaf.homepage24.de/A%20Recent%20Record%20of%20the%20Arabian%20Sand%20Cat%20from%20the%20Kuwaiti%20Desert-%20State%20of%20Kuwait
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Qit Sahrawi (Desert Cat or Sand Cat). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi'e Al-Awal 1428 AH. p. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic).  http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/قط_صحراوي
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B7_%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%8A
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic).  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Presence of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni) in the State of Qatar. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. p. 20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Qatar_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 66, Juni 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. Seiten 1-13. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007.  http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/حيوانات_فلسطين
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Sanuriyat (Felidae). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic). 
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/سنورياتhttp://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D9%86%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Der Karakal oder Wüstenluchs (Caracal caracal, von Schreber 1776). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 67, Juli 2007, Jamada Al-Akhera 1428 AH. Seiten 1-12. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Karakal.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Um Rishat (Caracal or Desert Lynx). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic). 
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/أم_ريشات
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D9%85_%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%AA
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. 2007. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) at Al Ain Zoo, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) at the ArabiaÂ’s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English).  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Arabica.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 73, January 2008. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Lioness_Sabrina.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Text) and Nora Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (Drawings) (2008). Qisset Al-LabuÂ’a Sabrina fi Hadiqet Haywanat Ghaza (The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Story in Arabic).  http://khalaf.homepage24.de/The%20Story%20of%20Sabrina,%20the%20Gaza%20Zoo%20Lioness
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Text) and Nora Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (Drawings) (2008). Qisset Al-LabuÂ’a Sabrina fi Hadiqet Haywanat Ghaza / The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. First Edition. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Publication in Summer 2008, in Arabic and English). ISBN 978-9948-03-603-6. English article Website:  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Lioness_Sabrina.html & Arabic Story Website: http://khalaf.homepage24.de/The%20Story%20of%20Sabrina,%20the%20Gaza%20Zoo%20Lioness
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Zanzibar Leopard (Panthera pardus adersi, Pocock 1932). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Zanzibar_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Zanjibar (Zanzibar Leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. Page 14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic). 
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%AC%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1
Khalaf, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Zum 2. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The Second Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 74, Februar 2008, Muharram 1429 AH. Seite 15.  Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Leopard Stamps from Zanzibar and Tanzania. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 75, March 2008. pp. 1-4. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Sri Lanka Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. pp. 1-17. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. 
http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sri_Lanka_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. Page 18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).  http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%83%D8%A7
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Persian or Iranian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 77, May 2008. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Persian_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Royal White Tigers (Panthera tigris, Linnaeus 1758) at Zoo d'Amnéville (Amneville Zoo), Amneville, Lorraine, France. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 78, June 2008. pp. 1-26.  Sharjah, United -Arab Emirates.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/White_Tiger_Amneville.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Farisi (Persian leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%B3%D9%8A
Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2008). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Khalaf_References.html
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Khorozyan, I. (2003). Habitat preferences by the endangered Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927) in Armenia. Zoology in the Middle East 30: 25-36.  
Khorozyan, 1. (2004). Strengthening local capacities for biodiversity conservation in Armenia. Final report submitted to The Whitley Awards, UK.
Khorozyan, I. and A. Malkhasyan. (2002). Ecology of the leopard (Panthera pardus) in Khosrov Reserve, Armenia: implications for conservation. Scientific Reports of Societa Zoologica "La Torbiera" 6: 1-41. 
Kiabi, B. H.; Dareshouri, B. F.; Ghaemi, R. A.; Jahanshahi, M. (2002). Population status of the Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927) in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 26: 41-47.
Linnell, J.D.C., J.E. Swenson and R. Andersen. (2001). Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Animal Conservation 4: 345-349.
Lukarevsky V. (2001). The leopard, striped hyena and wolf in Turkmenistan. Moscow, Signar.
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Author & Webmaster: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa. (2008).