Leopard (Panthera pardus) : The Dr. Khalaf-von Jaffa Websites

The Sri Lanka Leopard

The Sri Lanka leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956).*

By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa.


Note: This article was published in "Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin". Number 76, April 2008. pp. 1-17.


The Sri Lanka leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956), colloquially known as Kotiya, is a subspecies of leopard native to Sri Lanka. However, "kotiya" is now the colloquial Sinhala name for the tiger and "diviya" is used for the leopard.
A recent study has shown that Yala National Park in Sri Lanka has one of the highest recorded densities of leopards in the world, although this animal is still considered to be endangered. The Wilpattu National Park in Sri Lanka is also known as a good place to watch leopards. Leopards tend to be more readily observed in parts of Sri Lanka than in other countries where they share their habitat with more dominant competitors, such as lions or hyaenas (Wikipedia).

Origin:

The origin of the leopard on the subcontinent of India is unknown but it is believed that it migrated down from the North/West passes and from here spread out across the realm (Prater, 1965). Initially it was believed that this is the only leopard population to have evolved as the top predatory carnivore in its ecosystem, having been isolated from intra-guild competition since Sri Lanka split off from the Indian sub-continent (Guggisberg, 1975; Miththapala et al., 1996). The sea level rise that separated Sri Lanka was ~5,000-10,000 YBP (Deraniyagala, 1992). Deraniyagala (1939) reported a lower carnassial in an alluvial deposit in the southwestern wet zone from which he erected a new sub-species of lion (Panthera leo sinhaleyus, Deraniyagala 1938). The frequent reference to the lion in Sri Lankan history, art, legend and folklore were seen to further support their likely existence (Deriniyagala, 1958). However the Sinhalese (“people of the lion”) are believed to have come to Sri Lanka from north-western India, where the last outpost of the Asian lion (Panthera leo) remains today and it is these cultural links that appear to better explain the importance of the lion as symbolic theme. The support for it being a separate sub-species is debatable but nonetheless it appears to have become extinct on the island before the arrival of culturally modern humans ca. 37,000 YBP. More recent fossil discoveries indicate that at one time tigers (Panthera tigris) also inhabited the island, having arrived prior to the latest glacial maximum ca. 20,000 ybp. The tiger fossil evidence, a right middle phalanx, was C14 dated to ~16,500 YBP.
That the leopard is now the only large mammalian predator in Sri Lanka makes this a unique location in which to conduct a study. This extended lack of large felid competition, unknown elsewhere, is perhaps the reason behind the Sri Lankan leopardÂ’s purportedly more diurnal and less arboreal habits than its continental brethren (Muckenhirn and Eisenberg, 1973). Being the sole large predatory carnivore in the Sri Lankan ecosystem also drastically increases its role as a potential keystone species, helping to determine the densities and numbers of prey species such as spotted/axis deer (Axis axis), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and sambar/sambhur (Cervus unicolor).

Misidentification in Sri Lanka:

Some years ago, the Kotiya was mistakenly published as "tiger" in some Sri Lankan media due to incorrect information received from the then head of the Wildlife Department in Sri Lanka. He had said that "there are no kotiyas in Sri Lanka", misinterpreting Panthera pardus kotiya as "Diviya" (cat) in Sinhala.
There are no tigers in Sri Lanka. Although Panthera pardus kotiya is the kotiya, and there is no such creature as Panthera pardus diviya, local people started to use "kotiya" to mean "tiger", so "diviya" was chosen for "leopard".
The term "diviya" has been used for centuries in Sri Lanka to refer to smaller wild species of the cat family such as "Handun Diviya" or "Kola Diviya" (both names for the Fishing Cat) (Wikipedia).

Description:

The Sri Lanka leopard is one of the eight known subspecies of leopard. Its coat is tawny or rusty yellow, stamped with dark spots and rosettes. Seven females that were weighed averaged 29 kg; males averaged 56 kg, with the largest being 77 kg (Wikipedia).

Distribution:

The leopard is the most widespread of all the big cats. The typical form came from Egypt but its present range extends from sub-Saharan Africa across the Arabian Peninsula into the Indian sub-continent and further eastwards to China, Korea, the Russian Fareast, Peninsular Malaysia and Java. In Sri Lanka the leopard was once widely distributed across much of the island from sea level to over 2,000 m. More recently, a combination of forest conversion and poaching has reduced substantially, both the number and range of the leopard. Nevertheless, viable populations occur both within several protected areas as well in the remote forested areas in the north and east.

Range, Habitat and Population:

With the ability to thrive not just in forests like the tiger or open savanna like the lion, the leopard or panther is the most successful big cat in terms of colonizing new and varied terrain. That these felids can subsist on a host of small prey species as well as their traditional medium-size ungulate prey increases their impressive ability to live in all manner of habitat. This is perhaps why these adaptable carnivores have spread virtually throughout Asia and roam over all of Africa except for the Sahara (Prater, 1965). Despite this renowned adaptability the leopard is fast disappearing, relegated to smaller and smaller pockets across its range. A thriving world market for its skins during the late 1960s combined with steady and continuing habitat loss caused the United States to list the leopard as an endangered species throughout its range in March 1972. Three years later the leopard was added to Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which completely restricted any trade in leopard products. While the southern African species’ have since been down-listed to “threatened” the Asian species’ remain on the endangered list.
The Sri Lanka Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya is found only in Sri Lanka, and is the country's top predator. Little has been known about it in the past, but ongoing studies (The Leopard Project, run by The Wilderness and Wildlife Conservation Trust) indicate that they are still distributed throughout the island both inside and outside of protected areas. The leopard has been observed in a variety of habitats including dry evergreen monsoon forest, arid scrub jungle, low and upper montane (highland) forest, rainforest, and wet zone intermediate forests.
In Sri Lanka the current population of leopards roaming the island is unknown. What is known however is that the numbers of these elusive animals have decreased substantially over the last century. This was originally due to game hunting during colonial times and later through poaching for skins. The passage of the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance of 1938 put leopards under legal protection, however poaching both inside and outside protected areas continued unabated (Muckenhirn and Eisenberg, 1973). Even today poaching outside and within the countryÂ’s national parks is far from a thing of the past. From January 2001 to the present there have been at least 35 leopards killed by poachers in Sri Lanka. However the major causes for population decline - habitat loss and fragmentation - are less direct and if anything, more difficult to mitigate. With a burgeoning human population already surpassing 19 million and the territorial constraints inherent in island ecosystems, the destruction of leopard habitat for human use is more evident than ever. That there is a concerted effort in the country to become self-sufficient, especially in the production of rice, compounds the problem of human/leopard conflict as more and more land area is converted into paddy for agricultural utilization. Maintaining a balance between the needs of the people of Sri Lanka and the requirements of the islandÂ’s wildlife is a fundamental goal for the WWCT.

Feeding:

Like most cats, the Sri Lanka leopard is pragmatic in its choice of diet which can include small mammals, birds, reptiles as well as larger animals. Axis or spotted deer make up the majority of its diet in the dry zone. The animal also preys on sambar, barking deer, wild boar and monkeys. The cat has been known to tackle almost fully grown buffalos.
The leopard hunts like other leopards, silently stalking its prey until it is within striking distance where it unleashes a burst of speed to quickly pursue and pounce on its victim. The prey is usually dispatched with a single bite to the throat (Wikipedia).

Biology and Ecology:

A recent study in Yala National Park (The Leopard Project) indicates that Sri Lankan leopards are not any more social, nor less nocturnal, than other populations. They are solitary hunters, with the exception of females with young. Both sexes live in overlapping territories with the ranges of males overlapping the smaller ranges of several females, as well as overlapping the ranges of neighbouring males.
The breeding season is throughout the year with a non-significant peak in the dry season. A litter usually consists of 2 cubs. Unlike some other leopards, Sri Lanka leopards appear too rarely cache kills in trees. This is consistent with other populations where the leopard is the apex predator as there is no requirement for them to store their prey in places which are inaccessible to other predators.
The leopard is a highly adaptable felid. It inhabits both the semi-arid, thorn scrub of the lowlands and the dense montane cloud forest of the highlands. However, it is essentially a forest animal: even those adapted to semi-arid conditions appear to have a physiological need for shade during the heat of the day. Although in Sri Lanka it is the least nocturnal of all the felids, in places where it has learned to fear man, the leopard becomes much more cautious and nocturnal. It is usually solitary, unless accompanied by dependent young or during courtship and mating. In undisturbed areas, it spends considerable part of its daily activity on the ground, seeking refuge of the trees only at times. Rocky outcrops are often used as vantage points. 

The leopard has excellent night vision, and hunts largely on sight. It is more an opportunistic predator than any other felid, and will attempt to kill any prey it comes across. As predators, leopards must spend a considerable amount of time locating and capturing prey. The classic hunt consists of stalk, chase and kill. Despite its relatively small body size, the leopard is still capable of taking large prey, and is extremely adaptable to changes in prey availability. In general, females with cubs are more successful in killing the prey that they encounter than males. Females also use their slightly smaller home ranges more effectively in capturing prey. Should the prey density become very low however, a female would range over a wider area, since her behaviour is usually more closely keyed to resources, given the responsibility of raising young. Leopards at times may drag their kill up into the branches of tall trees in order to avoid the unwelcome attention of other predators and scavengers such as jackals, wild boar or crocodiles. Leopards seem to prefer prey in the 20-70 kg size category, with an upper limit at about 225 kg; two or three times the weight of the cat itself. 

The leopard always attacks its large quadruped prey by seizing it by the throat with its teeth and strangling it while grasping it firmly round the neck and shoulders with its strong forelegs, and commence feeding on the soft parts of the belly first. The amount of meat eaten by an adult leopard may vary from 8 to 18 kg in 12 hours. Given that almost a quarter of the kill consists of inedible portions, a leopard may have to kill prey amounting to 487-584 kg per year to survive. Although itÂ’s principal prey in Sri Lanka is the spotted deer (Axis axis), several other herbivores may function as buffer prey items. When the prey types available in an area are grouped according to their size, a clear preference for medium-sized herbivorous mammals emerges in leopard kills. Scats show the remains of wild boar (Sus scrofa), mouse deer (Moschiola meminna), porcupine (Hystrix indica), black-naped hare (Lepus nigricollis) and even water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Especially significant is the leopard's capacity to subsist on small prey such as rodents, snakes, game birds, even when "normal" prey is available. It can even feed on carrion. It is this catholicity of diet that enables the leopard to prey off a wide range of herbivore species and other food resources. Man-eating leopards are rare in Sri Lanka: the famous Punani man-eater was shot over its last human kill by R. Shelton Agar in 1924, after it had killed and devoured at least 12 people.

The main vocalization of the leopard is a rough, rasping sound similar to that of a saw cutting wood. Through these calls, leopards are able to maintain their spacing and also respond to members of the opposite sex during the breeding season. In addition, leopards also hiss and growl when angry, grunt when alarmed, and caterwaul when treed by dogs. Home range size in carnivores increases with the metabolic needs of the animals. The minimum estimates of the home range of the leopard in Sri Lanka vary from 4 to 10.5 km2. Females occupy territories that may overlap with those of other females slightly. But the much larger male territories overlap those of several females in an area. The boundaries of the territories are defended in fights and are marked throughout by urine sprayed onto logs, tree-trunks, and bushes in the course of the leopardÂ’s extensive travels around its territory. However, a leopard usually covers a great part of its range every few days, and rarely stays in one spot for two nights in succession. While the male home ranges do not overlap, the adult females might share a part of their range with a male. Within their home ranges, the leopards scent-mark by squirting urine on trees and bushes. Leopards also make scrape marks on the ground, on trunks of trees and defecate in prominent places, to communicate their presence in the area. The density at which leopards occur varies with the availability of prey. In Block I of Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka, where prey is abundant, leopards occur at an average density of about 0.25 per km2.
Felids appear to be seasonally polyestrous in temperate regions and completely polyestrous in the tropics. Leopards reproduce when they are 2-3 years old. The onset of breeding may be associated with the rasping calls, which increase in frequency during estrous. Females are sexually receptive at 3-7 week intervals, and the period of receptivity lasts for a few days, during which mating is frequent. After a gestation period of about 98-105 days, on average 3 cubs are born blind and furred in a burrow, hollow log or in a rocky cave. They are weaned in three months. Leopard cubs are adapted for a "feast and famine" food regime from a very early age. Male cubs usually disperse from the natal area when they are about between 8 months and 2 years old, while female cubs remain within the motherÂ’s territory and eventually take over a part or all of her territory. Average longevity in the wild could be about 10 years, although in captivity leopards may live up to 20 years.

Threats:

The survival of the Sri Lanka leopard has been threatened due to poaching, habitat loss, and persecution. Despite these threats, the animal is highly adaptable and is able to live in close proximity to human settlements. Years of civil unrest in Sri Lanka have hampered conservation efforts, especially in the Wilpattu national park and eastern regions contested by government forces and the LTTE (The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, commonly known as the Tamil Tigers).
Leopard Poaching: 
Around the world, leopards are in trouble. The big spotted cats have been hunted to extinction in some areas, and their habitat - which ranges from dry desert to moist jungle - is under pressure from growing human populations. Leopard lovers in Sri Lanka and elsewhere are taking steps to protect these powerful creatures. But while parks and preserves have helped save leopard habitat, the cat's striking pelt continues to make it an attractive target for poachers. While not as fashionable as they once were, a leopard fur can still fetch thousands of dollars on the black market.

In Sri Lanka, researchers believe poaching has helped reduce leopard populations by up to 75 percent over the last century. While firm numbers are scarce, biologists estimate that less than 500 of the big cats remain in the island nation, which lies off India's southern coast. Most are thought to be in three national parks, including the Yala preserve. 

To get a better picture of Sri Lanka's leopard populations, the Sri Lanka Wildlife Conservation Society is currently helping sponsor several studies. Among other findings, researchers have confirmed that the Sri Lankan leopard is a genetically-distinct subspecies (Panthera pardus kotiya) that has its own unique habits. But studying wild leopards isn't easy, as they are expert at hiding themselves in the forest's brush and shadows. And they are most active at night, further complicating surveys.

Researchers are also keeping an eye on poaching, which the society calls "one of biggest threats" to Sri Lanka's leopards. Over the last few years, they have documented at least 25 leopards killed by poachers, but "it is obvious that many more leopards must be killed island-wide that go unrecorded," society officials note. They've also surveyed historical records, turning up dozens of cases - including the 1996 discovery of the postal package holding the finely-prepared leopard skin. As in many other cases, police were never able to find the poacher. 

In their hunt for profit, leopard poachers threaten more than just the cats, biologists note. They also threaten to destabilize entire ecosystems by removing a top predator. "The vital role that the Sri Lankan leopard plays as the only substantial predator in the ecosystem cannot be overstated," say wildlife society biologists. "Removing this top cat from the arid zone environment, for example, would have dramatic consequences for a host of species lower on the food chain." If the leopards don't keep populations of grazing animals in check, for instance, the grazers could soon denude important forests and grasslands.

Leopard lovers hope to prevent such ecological catastrophes by learning more about leopard habits and answering key questions, such as how much territory the big cats need to survive. And, eventually, they hope that people will see that a leopard's skin is more valuable on a living animal than it is on a wall.

Conservation:

Further research into the Sri Lanka leopard is needed for any conservation measure to be effective. The Leopard Project under the Wilderness and Wildlife Conservation Trust (WWCT) is working closely with the government of Sri Lanka to ensure this occurs. The Sri Lanka Wildlife Conservation Society will also undertake some studies. The WWCT are currently engaged in the central hills region where fragmentation of the leopard's habitat is rapidly occurring.
The number of predators in Sri Lanka is a measure of the island’s biological diversity and ecological richness. The existence of carnivores highlights the presence of a much larger ecological community, of which the leopard is at the top of the food chain. The leopard was once very numerous and widespread in Sri Lanka. Just how numerous it was could be appreciated from the numbers that were killed officially: between 1872 and 1899, a total of 8,473 animals were destroyed for which rewards were paid. In the Mannar District alone, 582 leopards were killed between 1854 and 1886. At the turn of the century, the number of leopards in the island was estimated at 1,660, when at least 50% of the land was under forest cover. Since then however, the forest cover has declined to less than 23%, while the human population has increased to over 19 million by 2000. Any assessment of leopard numbers is difficult, given the secretive nature of the felid and its capacity to exist in unlikely localities without betraying its presence. Today, perhaps between 400 - 600 leopards may survive in Sri Lanka. While it is impossible to be certain that this conservative estimate is correct, it is clear that the numbers of the leopard in Sri Lanka can now be measured in ‘hundreds’ whereas in the last century, it would have been estimated in ‘thousands’. The greatest threat to any wild felid comes from the increasing use of poison in agricultural areas. Given its propensity for scavenging, the leopard is more susceptible to taking poisoned meat. It is also widely poached for its skin, even within protected areas. Thus the leopard is subject to the vicissitudes of the illegal fur trade coupled with the acceleration of its habitat destruction. Therefore it may be among the most seriously endangered species of large mammals in Sri Lanka. Today, the leopard survives in a few small populations of unknown size. Yet not all small populations are ipso facto doomed. If habitat and other resources are available, and if the area is well protected, a species may increase rapidly. If several small, isolated populations persist, gene flow may possibly be maintained artificially by an occasional exchange of individuals. Conservation areas that support leopards in Sri Lanka must be of sufficient size to ensure at least the minimum viable populations could survive within their boundaries. Outside protected areas; the best opportunity for leopard conservation appears to lie in some form of multiple-use-pattern of forest development. The future for all wild cats in Sri Lanka is not likely to be rosy, if habitat loss continues unabated. The unnecessary extinction of any species represents a loss to human welfare.

The Future:

Devising a balanced conservation strategy for the Sri Lankan leopard is becoming more and more important and it is hoped that by gaining insight into the demography, range use and behaviour patterns of the leopards this study can provide an initial, solid groundwork from which informed and progressive decisions can be made. For the habitat of the leopard is fast disappearing and if this remarkable species is to be preserved in the remaining habitable pockets an increased understanding of them is essential. 

In Sri Lanka it is the elephant (Elephus maximus) that has been used as the flagship species for conservation (Jayawardene, 1994). The leopard, other than for a few indirect and direct studies (Eisenberg & Lockhart, 1972; Santiapillai, 1982; Amarasiri de Silva & Jayaratne, 1995), has largely been ignored and its conservation not adequately addressed. The importance of a full-scale leopard research project is therefore critical for the preservation of this vital predator species.


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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Der Asiatische oder Iranische Gepard (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 53, May 2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatischer_Gepard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Die Rohrkatze (Felis chaus). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 54, June 2006. pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Rohrkatze.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina1.html (Part 1) &  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina2.html (Part 2) & 
www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina3.html (References). 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Arabica.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 147-149. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Lion_Palestine.html
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.   www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatic_Lion.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp.1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/Ein%20Besuch%20im%20Neunkircher%20Zoo-%20Neunkirchen-%20Saarland-%20Deutschland
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) in Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany / Der Chinesische Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 60, December 2006. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Chinese_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the ArabiaÂ’s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). 
http://khalaf.homepage24.de/Behavioural%20Observations%20on%20the%20Arabian%20Leopard%20in%20the%20Arabia-s%20Wildlife%20Centre-%20Sharjah-%20UAE
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Zum 1. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The First Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 62, Februar 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. Seite 11.  Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Recent Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Kuwaiti Desert, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Awal 1428 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; Abstract in English, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/A%20Recent%20Record%20of%20the%20Arabian%20Sand%20Cat%20from%20the%20Kuwaiti%20Desert-%20State%20of%20Kuwait
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Qit Sahrawi (Desert Cat or Sand Cat). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi'e Al-Awal 1428 AH. p. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic).  http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/قط_صحراوي http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B7_%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%8A
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Presence of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni) in the State of Qatar. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, RabiÂ’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. p. 20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Qatar_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 66, Juni 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. Seiten 1-13. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007.  http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/حيوانات_فلسطين
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Sanuriyat (Felidae). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic).
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/سنوريات
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D9%86%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Der Karakal oder Wüstenluchs (Caracal caracal, von Schreber 1776). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 67, Juli 2007, Jamada Al-Akhera 1428 AH. Seiten 1-12. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Karakal.html                        Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Um Rishat (Caracal or Desert Lynx). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic).
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/أم_ريشات
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D9%85_%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%AA
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Sand_Cat.html                                  
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. 2007. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) at Al Ain Zoo, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) at the ArabiaÂ’s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German).
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Arabica.html                                                                     
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 73, January 2008. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Lioness_Sabrina.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Text) and Nora Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (Drawings) (2008). Qisset Al-LabuÂ’a Sabrina fi Hadiqet Haywanat Ghaza (The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Story in Arabic).  http://khalaf.homepage24.de/The%20Story%20of%20Sabrina,%20the%20Gaza%20Zoo%20Lioness
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Text) and Nora Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf (Drawings) (2008). Qisset Al-LabuÂ’a Sabrina fi Hadiqet Haywanat Ghaza / The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. First Edition. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Publication in Summer 2008, in Arabic and English). ISBN 978-9948-03-603-6. English article Website:  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Lioness_Sabrina.html & Arabic Story Website: http://khalaf.homepage24.de/The%20Story%20of%20Sabrina,%20the%20Gaza%20Zoo%20Lioness
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Zanzibar Leopard (Panthera pardus adersi, Pocock 1932). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Zanzibar_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Zanjibar (Zanzibar Leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. Page 14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic).
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%AC%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1
Khalaf, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Zum 2. Todestag : Eine Persoenlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palaestina / The Second Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palaestinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 74, Februar 2008, Muharram 1429 AH. Seite 15.  Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Leopard Stamps from Zanzibar and Tanzania. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 75, March 2008. pp. 1-4. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Sri Lanka leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. pp. 1-17. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sri_Lanka_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia).  Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. Page 18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).  http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%83%D8%A7
Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2008).  http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Khalaf_References.html
Kittle, A. M & A. Watson (2004). Distribution and Status of the Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya). A Short Report. CAT NEWS. NO:41, Autumn 2004. http://www.wwct.org/island_distribution.php
Leopards of Sri Lanka - Sri Lanka Leopard Watching Tours and Holidays - Sri Lanka Wildlife Holidays. http://www.srilankanexpeditions.com/tour.php?id=31
Leopards of Yala. Leopard Poaching. Nature.  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/leopards/print/poaching.html
Leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758).  http://www.catsg.org/catsgportal/cat-website/catfolk/traprdrf.htm
Miththapala, Sriyanie; John Seidensticker, Stephen J. O'Brien (1996) Phylogeographic Subspecies Recognition in Leopards (Panthera pardus): Molecular Genetic Variation
Conservation Biology 10 (4), 1115–1132.
Muckenhirn, N.A.; Eisenberg, J.F. (1973). Home ranges and predation of the Ceylon leopard (Panthera pardus fusca). Pages 142-175 in The WorldÂ’s Cats. 1(1). R. L. Eaton (Editor). World Wildlife Safari, Winston, Oregon.
Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956. Taxonomic Serial No.: 726468 . ITIS Report. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=726468
Phillips, W.W.A. (1935) (revised 1980). Manual of the Mammals of Ceylon. Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka.
Prater, S. H. (1965). The book of Indian animals. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Press, Bombay, 324 pp.
Santiapillai, C. (1982). The Leopard Panthera pardus fusca in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka, and observations relevant to its conservation. Biological Conservation 23:5-14.
Sri Lanka Leopard Safari. http://www.go-lanka.com/sri-lanka/leopard_safari.html
SRI LANKA: WILD LIFE, FAUNA & FLORA. http://www.lankalibrary.com/wlife.html
The Leopard of Sri Lanka. http://www.manrecap.com/leopard.html
The Leopard Project. Wilderness and Wildlife Conservation Trust. Sri Lanka. http://www.wwct.org/leopard.php
Wikipedia. Sri Lanka Leopard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka_leopard
Yala National Park. Yala Village, Sri Lanka. http://www.yalavillage.com/yala-national-park-sri-lanka.html

 

Author & Webmaster: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa. (2008).